PRODUCTION

Общая информация Preparation Glass melting Product formation Annealing Quality control Packaging

Manufacturing glass products for wide use is a complex technological process, which requires not only special in-shop equipment and material expenses (raw materials, energy), but also involvement of professional experts. In this section, we shall try to present our major production steps.

1. Preparation of initial raw materials. In this step, raw materials preparation and submitting to an intake bin occur. Also, dosing of all added ingredients (batch) and dispatching the ready mixture to a smelter are performed.

2. Glass melting. It is performed at very high temperature (1200 grad min), so workers who control the process should be very careful (stay far from the furnace and have their protective clothes on).

The first two steps are very important, because introduced errors will affect the product quality.

3. Product formation - giving a shape to the future product is performed using metal accessories and special blow-out equipment.

4. Annealing (thermal processing) of ready products. This process secures glass hardness and durability for future use.

5. Quality control and product strength tests. The bottles are to be thoroughly examined and tested for pressure and high temperature resistance.

6. Packaging and stocking.

PREPARATION OF RAW MATERIALS

Glass container production involves using large amounts of raw materials. So, the raw materials are to be of top quality and ecologically safe. The containers are made of multi-component mixture. All raw materials used in glass production undergo severe control for meeting standards and thorough testing in specialized laboratories.

The preparation of raw materials consists in removing foreign substances from the cullet, sand and other raw ingredients with further reduction and sifting.

1. stocking and putting raw materials to the glass line's intake bins.

2. from intake bins, raw materials go to supply bins, where charge components are dosed in a certain proportion with weight feeders and stirred in mixers, with further mixing cullet with charge.

3. the charge mass and cullet are fed to a furnace compartment.

Charge is a dry mixture of materials, which are fed to a furnace to produce glass.

Charge composing is weighing the components in certain proportions and their stirring in order to receive the homogeneous mass.

Charge composition:

• Quartz sand GOST 22551-77;
• Dolomite powder TU 5716-005-21079129-00;
• Technical soda ash GOST 5100-85;
• Technical sodium sulfate GOST 6318-77;
• Technological chalk TU 95-2317-91;
• Technical sodium nitre GOST 828-77;
• Decolourizers: ceric oxide, selenium, cobalt oxide;
• Pigments: ferrous compounds, manganese oxide, chromium oxide, uranium oxide, cobalt oxide, nickel oxide, antimony oxide or sodium sulfide, colloidal silver, copper oxide, colloidal gold, burned bone, mixture

GLASS MELTING

Melting glass in a glass melter. Preparation of glass mass for forming in feeders.

1. loading charge and cullet mixture to a melter using special automatic feeders.

2. the prepared charge is directed to a regenerative furnace, where, in a melting tank, the charge is heated to high temperatures (above 1000°С). As a result, the charge is melted down to liquid silicates, which still contain some refractory substances. Further temperature growth (above 1500°С) produces liquid glass mass, where refractory substances are already absent, and gas bubbles are being evaporated.

3. Glass melting occurs at temperatures 1200 to 1550 grad. In this step, numerous additives and pigments are added to the mixture. Due to these substances, the glass mass acquires a desirable tone and becomes homogeneous and free from gas inclusions. It is thoroughly stirred to achieve homogeneous composition of certain viscosity.

4. the prepared molten mass is cooled down to blowing-out temperatures (about 900°С), then bottles are formed.

PRODUCT FORMATION

Shaping and blowing-out are performed using a glass-forming machine.

1. The partially cooled molten mass is supplied in the form of dosed drops to a draft mold, where the machine executes the bottleneck and forms the beginning of the full product (preliminary blowing-up of a parison).

2. The parison is transferred to a finishing mold, where final blowing-up of the bottle volume occurs.

3. The machine dispatches the end product to a conveyor for further processing. Then, new mold equipment is prepared to receive the next glass drops.

ANNEALING (THERMAL PROCESSING)

This procedure is needed to make a bottle mechanically strong and resistant to temperature fluctuations during further processing and use. The operation is performed in annealers (direct heating furnace).

1. Bottles blown out with forming machines are moved to the annealer, where the hot glass temperature is gradually lowered from blowing-out levels to finishing levels.

2. Finishing of ready bottles is performed using a special solution (cold coating), which protects the product from scratching or other defects during packaging and transportation.

A calculated annealing mode is to provide stress relieving to values, which guarantee safety of the product during further processing and use.

  • product's annealer input temperature 500-600 grad.
  • product's output temperature 50-80 grad.

QUALITY CONTROL

The quality of our products is performed both automatically and manually. The technical control is performed to define if the product meets both Russian standards and standards of our enterprise.

1.A conveyor moves the product to an inspection machine, where automatic rejection is performed using a scanner and sensors.

2. Visual quality control of glass containers is performed; colour intensity, proper size and volume, presence of molding defects or bubbles are checked.

3. Technical control in a QC laboratory with further testing for thermal stability, annealing quality and pressure;

Bottles, which did not pass the quality control, are rejected and go to remelting.

END PRODUCT PACKAGING

The production process finishes in a packaging shop, on special conveyor lines, where bottles are supplied after the quality control.

The product packaging is carried out by a palletiser or a shrink-wrapping machine. The containers are packed into a transportation package and warehoused.

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